SULAWESI / CELEBES

 

 

HISTORY

PROVINCES

Gorontalo

Sulawesi Barat

Sulawesi Selatan

Sulawesi Tengah

Sulawesi Tenggara

Sulawesi Utara

 

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History

 

Starting in the 13th century, access to prestige trade goods and to sources of iron started to alter long-standing cultural patterns, and to permit ambitious individuals to build larger political units in Sulawesi. It is not known why these two ingredients appeared together; one was perhaps the product of the other. By 1400, a number of nascent agricultural principalities had arisen in the western Cenrana valley, as well as on the south coast and on the east coast near modern Parepare.

The first Europeans to visit the island (which they believed to be an archipelago due to its contorted shape) were Portuguese sailors in 1525, sent from the Moluccas in search of gold, which the islands had the reputation of producing. The Dutch arrived in 1605 and were quickly followed by the English, who established a factory in Makassar. From 1660, the Dutch were at war with Gowa, the major Makassar west coast power. In 1669, Admiral Speelman forced the ruler, Sultan Hasanuddin, to sign the Treaty of Bongaya, which handed control of trade to the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch were aided in their conquest by the Bugis warlord Arung Palakka, ruler of the Bugis kingdom of Bone. The Dutch built a fort at Ujung Pandang, while Arung Palakka became the regional overlord and Bone the dominant kingdom. Political and cultural development seems to have slowed as a result of the status quo. In 1905 the entire island became part of the Netherlands East Indies. It was the most important island of the Gouvernement Groote Oost established in 1938 and occupied by  the Japanese Navy in 1942. After the war Celebes became a part of the State of East-Indonesia (Indonesia Timur), the successor of the Groote Oost with Makassar as its capital. Following the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949, Sulawesi became a part of the Province of Indonesia Timur, created in 1945 as a part of the Republic of Indonesia. Sulawesi was divided in five provinces after the revolts of 1958 in Sumatera and Northern Sulawesi. In 2000 Gorontalo became the sixth province.

 

 

All provinces of Sulawesi are controlled by the TNI Komando Daerah Militer (Kodam) VII/Wirabuana. This Unit includes the Batalyon Infanteri 714.

 

Provinces

 

Gorontalo

 

 

Under Dutch rule today’s Gorontalo was a division from Manado Residency called Soengoe Minasa. In 1938 it became a part of the Gouvernement Groote Oost and in 1946 a part of the State of East Indonesia.

On 16 February 2000 the division, formerly a part of Sulawesi Utara, became a separate province.

 

The Motto of Gorontalo is: Duluo Limo Lo Pohalaa which is Gorontalo language for “The land of Medina’s gate”.

 

The achievement of Gorontalo is:

Emblem: Argent, a tower of three embattlements, charged with an escutcon pearted per bend sinister Gules and Argent, between two coco-nut trees, and an open book in base all proper

Crest: A five-pointed star Or

Supporters: Two wings Or

Garland: A branch of cotton and an ear of rice proper connected with a chain of 23 links Argent

Motto: PROVINSI GORONTALO in white lettering on a red scroll.

Backshield: A lilac-colored five-cornered shield.

 

The cotton branch, the ear if rice and the chain make the date 23 January 1942, the date Gorontalo achieved independence from Dutch rule.

The two wings symbolize dynamism, the eight feathers of each wing are for the date of 16 February 2000, the day Gorontalo became a separate province.

 

đ See illustration in the head of this section.

 

The achievement is derived and inspired by the achievement of the city of Gorontalo, the capital of the province. The achievement is:

 

 

Arms: Per pale Vert and Sable, two palm-trees inclined to the center and in chief a five-pointed star Or, and a base Azure, issuing therefrom a five-leaved flower also Or, and a bordure Gules, in dexter chief a branch of cotton and in sinister chief an ear of rice proper, connected with a chain Argent.

Supporters: Two wings of seven feathers each, Or.

Motto: KOTAMADYA DATI II GORONTALO

 

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Sulawesi Barat

 

 

 

The Province of Sulawesi Barat, formerly Mandar division and a part of Sulawesi Selatan, was created in 2004. Its capital is Mamuju.

 

The achievement of Sulawesi Barat is:

 

Emblem: A disc engrailed of 14 points, each point covered, Argent, a mountain rising from the sea and an outrigger proa, surrounded by a garland of cotton and rice.

Crest: a payong (umbrella) charged with a trident and a five-pointed star in chief.

Motto: MELLETE DIATONGANAN: Following the Truth.

Backshield: Argent, a chief Gules the name SULAWESI BARAT Argent.

 

đ See illustration in the head of this section

 

Sulawesi Tengah

 

 

 

Traditional Gulf of Tomini Shield  [1]

The province of Sulawesi Tengah formerly Afdeeling Midden Celebes and a part of Residentie Manado, later Sulawesi Utara, was created on 13 April 1964. 

 

Traditional Shields

 

Traditional shields from the northwestern region of Sulawesi were made from one single piece of wood, its handle on the backside carved from the same block. They were inlaid with bone and nassa shells (Nassarius dumeril - Nassariinæ) and decorated with human hair, probably of killed enemies. Later the human hair was replaced by animal hair - goat for the most part.

The shields were employed in sword fights and war dances.

At the turn of the twentieth century such shields were still used by the Guard of Honour in Manado as can be seen on the picture below.

 

Guard of Honour in Minahasa

Coll. Tropenmuseum Amsterdam, inv. nr. 10001884

 

Judging by the shields the guard is composed of people from different regions of Manado Residency. The crests on their headdresses are probably badges of rank.

 

The present administrative emblem of Sulawesi Tengah

 

Arms: Parted per bend sinister Azure and Or, a palmtree proper; in chief a five-pointed star Or and in base two barrulets indented Azure,; and a garland of rice and cotton, tied with a ribbon Gules.

Title: SULAWESI TENGAH in red lettering on a white chief of the arms.

 

The palmtree is for the copra culture, the waves are for the sea. The garland makes the date 13 April 1964, the date of the creation of the province of Central Sulawesi.

 

đ See illustration in the head of this section

 

The emblem was adopted on 1 Octber 1969. The decree, in Bahasa,  reads as follows:

 

 

ARTI LAMBANG DAERAH PROPINSI SULAWESI TENGAH

 

I. Lambang Daerah Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah ditapkan dengan peraturan Daerah No. 3 tahun 1969 tanggal 3 oktober 1969

 

II. bentuk

 

Bentuk dari Lambang  Daerah Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah adalah simbolis bentuk jantung, me-lambangkan bahwa is daripada Lambang ini tertanam dan bersumber dari hati nurani Rakyat Sulawesi Tengah.

 

III. warna

 

Warna yang digunakan pada dasar Lambang Daerah Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah ialah warna Biru Langit dan Warna Kuning. Warna kuning emas pada bintang dan buah padi dan warna biru laut pada gelombang

* Warna biru melambangkan kesetiaan (pada daerah, tanah air dan cita-cita) dan juga melambangkan cita-cita yang tinggi.

* Warna kuning melambangkan kejayaan, keagungan, kebahagiaan dan keluruhuran budi.

* Warna merah pada tulisan Sulawesi Tengah dengan dasar warba putih melambangkan kebe-ranian dan kesatriaan yang didasarkan atas hati yang suci, keikhlasan dan kejujuran.

* Warna hijau pada buah dan daun kelapa serta pada kelopak kapas, melambangkan kesuburan dan kemakmuran, dengan bumi yang subur kita menuju pada kemakmuran.

* Warna coklat pada batang kelapa melambangkan ketenangan.

 

IV. gambar

 

1. Lambang Daerah Sulawesi Tengah dilukiskan dengan pohon kelapa yang di samping merupakan modal utama daerah ini juga memberikan perlambang akan:

* Kesediaan untuk mengorbakankan segala-galanya untuk mencapai cita-cita.

* Seluruh bagian pohon kelapa sangat berguna bagi kehidupan manusia

* Ketenagan dan tawakkal dalam menghadapi segala tantangan.

* Pucuk yang lurus menunjuk bintang melambangkan keteguhan hati dalam usaha mencapai cita-cita hidup.

 

2. Lambang Daerah Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah dijiwakan oleh Pancasila yang jelas terlukis pada bintang segi lima, daun kelapa lima helai dan buah kelapa yang lima buah. Lebij jauh hal ini memberikan pengertian bahwa dengan jiwa Pancasila, di atas relnya/jalannya Pancasila kita hendak mecapai cita-cita negara kebangsaan yang adil dan makmur diridhai oleh Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.

 

3. Garis gelombang duah buah dengan masing-masing dua dan empat galur gelombang mem-berikan pengertian akan sifat maritim dari daerah Sulawesi Tengah dan disamping kekayaan bumi kita, laut di sekitarnya merupakan modal besar pula dalam usaha mendatangkan kemakmuran di daerah Sulawesi Tengah.

 

4. Padi dan daun kapas merupakan lambang umum kemakmuran.

Jumlah buah padi dan kapas masing-masing sembilan belas dan tiga belas buah.

Gerigi buah kapas ada empat buah.

 

5. Angka-angka 13 pada junlah buah kapas, 4 pada gerigi kelopak kapas, 19 dan 6 dan 4 pada jumlah buag padi dan galur gelombang, memberikan pengertian tanggal 13 bulan dan tahun terbentuknya Propinsi Daerah Tingkat I Sulawesi Tengah.

 

 

 

 

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Sulawesi Tenggara

 

 

From the seventeenth century until the early twentieth century, the region was the site of the Buton Sultanate (Butung). In the time of Dutch rule the territory was divided in the districts  Loewoe (south) and  Oost-Celebes. The province, formerly a part of Sulawesi Selatan was created on 27 April 1964.

 

Emblem: Argent, the head of an Anoa (Bubalus Depressicornis - Bovidæ) affrontée proper sur-rounded by a chain Or,

Garland: A brach of cotton and an ear of rice

Title: SULAWESI TENGGARA  in red lettering

Backshield: The emblem of Sulawesi Tenggara is on a five-cornered shield girony of five, the first and the second Or, the dexter brown, the sinister Sable and the base Vert

 

  • The anoa is known for its tenacity, smartness and curiosity.
  • The chain is for the date of the establishment of Sulawesi Tenggara: 27 April 1964.
  • The Garland symbolizes prosperity and the date of 17 August 1945, the date of the proclamation of the Republic Indonesia.
  • The five sides of the backshield symbolize the Pancasila, the five basic principles of the Republic.

The colors mean:

  • Yellow is for the Kabupaten Muna
  • Brown is for the Kabupaten Kolaka
  • Black is for the Kabupaten Buton
  • Green is for the Kabupaten Kendari

 

đ See illustration in the head of this section

 

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© Hubert de Vries 2010-11-24



[1] ) Picture from: Shields. From the Collections of the Barbier-Mueller Museum. Munich, 2000. No. 60.