Imperium Romanum

 

 

Christelijke Symbolen

dE sYMBOLEN VAN DE GEZAGSBEREIKEN

Het  griekse kruis, het latijnse kruis en het christogram werden vooral ontwikkeld in de tijd van keizer Constantijn aan het begin van de 4e eeuw. Over de precieze betekenis van deze symbolen bestaat veel verwarring maar zeker is dat zij niet hetzelfde betekenen.

 

The Carolingians 768-911

THE COMMON ORIGININ OF MODERN EUROPE

 

The Ottones 919-1024

PORTRAITS OF RULERS AND ORIGINS OF HERALDIC SYMBOLS

 

The Salians 1024-1125

A DYNASTY AND THE INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY

The Investiture Controversy caused the rise of many counter-kings opposing the ruling Henry IV opponent of Pope Gregory VII.

 

Emperor Henry IV and his Sons

PORTRAITS, REGALIA AND HERALDIC SYMBOLS

It is said that no contemporary portraits of Emperor Henry IV exist. Nevertheless we can compose a series of portraits of him and his sons Conrad and Henry (V), giving an idea of of the crowns, sceptres and sword of state they used and the heraldic devices they developed.

 

Lothair II

THE PERFECT CANDIDATE

Lothair II was widely recognized as his portraits in France may demonstrate

 

Conrad III the Crusader

PORTRAIT AND ARMS

Not only a seal of Conrad III is preserved but some other portraits today in St. Maurice en Agaune can be ascribed to him. Also a Madonna representing his wife and son was found in Schwäbisch-Gmünd.

 

Frederick I Barbarossa (*1123-†1190)

SEALS, PORTRAITS, ARMS

Many portraits of Frederick I have been attributed to other rulers in particular to Constantine the Great and Charlemagne. Several 12th century portraits of a red bearded ruler are found out to be of him.

 

Henry VI Hohenstaufen (*1165-†1197)

PORTRAITS, BANNERS, ARMS

 

Otto IV of Brunswick  (*1177-†1218)

THE ONLY WELF EMPEROR

 

Frederick II Hohenstaufen (*1194-† 1250)

IMAGES OF THE STUPOR MUNDI

A series of portraits of the last Hohenstaufen Emperor gathered from his seals and from other sources.

 

William II of Holland (*1227-†1256)

RELICS OF A RECKLESS KING

Of this Roman King, so neglected in German historiography, some portraits have been preserved in German collections. Of these the socalled „Magdeburger Reiter”, agreedly taken for Otto the Great, most certainly is a statue of king William II. Also it is for sure that he bore the coat of arms of the Roman King: Or, an eagle sable.

 

Deutscher Orden / Teutonic Order

ARMS OF THE ORDER AND ITS GRAND MASTERS

The Teutonic Order was one of the armies created to combat the enemies of the Holy Roman Empire in the middle ages. After its defeat in the Middle East the Teutonic Order became active in Prussia.