William II of  Holland, Roman King

*1227- †28.I.1256

 

 

RELICS OF A RECKLESS KING

 

Count of Holland 1234

King of Rome and Germany 1247

 Elected 3.X.1247

Crowned Aachen 1.XI.1248

Re-elected 1252

 

 

THE ARMS OF WILLIAM II, ROMAN KING AND COUNT OF HOLLAND

 

As a little boy of seven Count William succeeded his father Florent IV after he had been killed in a tournament in 1234. In 1247 he was made a pretender by his uncle Henry II of Brabant for the succession of German- and Roman King Henry Raspe who had died after a short rule. The rule of William II is controversial, in particular because it is thought that, he was not taken too seriously by the German princes because of his youth and because he was more interested in his home politics in Holland than in the affairs of the kingdom. Nevertheless he should not be underestimated in his efforts to submit the German princes. Already in the beginning of his rule he continued the siege of Aachen, the city where he had to be crowned and which was closed for him by its citizens, until he got his way. There are also some indications that he obtained a firm grip in the anti-staufen camp and in the end in the staufen territories too (at the end of his reign he could also call himself a Duke of Swabia). The strengthening of his power it has to be said, was particularly the case when the staufen King Conrad IV had left the country after the death of his father Frederick II in 1250. Before he really could develop into a statesman however, his career ended abruptly when he was killed in a campaign against the Frisians at Hoogwoud.

 

What could have been the arms of William II was a matter of speculation from the middle of the 14th century. Arms were ascribed to him of the lion of Holland, of the royal German eagle or a combination of both. The most ancient reference of the German eagle is in the Chronographia Johannis de Beke of about 1346 writing that the Frisians recognized the body of William by his arms which was a black eagle on a golden field [1]. Soon this eagle was impaled with the lion of Holland [2] and in the 16th century the trail was so lost, on purpose or not, that he was given a coat of arms  of the German eagle with an escutcheon Hainaut (quarterly of Flanders and Holland), a blason only dating from the beginning of the 14th century. The heraldic program on his tomb erected in 1542 in Middelburg but destroyed in 1568, is also in this tradition of ascribing arms to him. Neither an indication of his original arms could be found on it. [3][3]

Even when there are no heraldic shields on the seals of William II, they are of importance to  detect his arms because they are a part of a series of  his portraits from 1245 until his death and on which he has been portrayed on several moments of his career.

There is a seal on which he is depicted as a minor-aged count, a so-called youth-seal, showing him on horseback with a falcon in his hand [4]. An equestrian seal showing him as a knight in armour bearing the arms of Holland, as used by his father, is not known of him. On the other hand there are several models and prints of his royal seal. [5] These provide, because of the accuracy of the cutter, a reference point for other portraits of him. On the royal seals William is seated on a throne, dressed in a tunica and a mantle closed with a large buckle on his breast. There is a crown on his head with three large leaves. In his right hand he holds a lily-sceptre crested with a square cross, and in his left hand an orb, also crested with a square (or a latin-) cross. His hair style resembles the hair style of his predecessors and is long and undulated. Characteristic is the curl at the end which is somewhat more pronounced than those of the others who all have a completely different complexion anyway. A second type of portrait of which we are certain that it is of him is on the epitaph of the archbishop of Mayence, Siegfried III of Eppstein (†1249) who played an important role at his coronation in Aachen. On it he stands left of  the archbishop. [6] Other contemporary representations of William II however are incorrectly identified. Some of them show him with his arms as King of Rome.

 

The first example of such representations is the sculpture in the Chapel of St.Ulrich in Goslar. This sculpture is correctly dated in the 13th century but is supposed to be the portrait of the Emperor Henry III (1039-’56) on his tomb. Firstly this is doubtful because the figure has the model of the chapel in his hand and for that reason has to be the donor of the chapel. Secondly because Henry III is buried in the Dom of Speyer and not in Goslar. Henry III moreover, had a red pointed beard and his hair short cut. On the other hand the sculpture strongly resembles William II on his royal seal and for that reason, also taking into account its date of origin, may be representing him. 

 

The second example is the famous so-called Magdeburg Rider. The group of statues of which it is a part was also made in the middle of the 13th century. The original is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Magdeburg and a gilded copy from 1961 is on the Alter Markt in the city, where it was originally erected.

The group consists of the rider himself and two ladies of which the one on the right supports a shield. The lady on the left had, according to an engraving from 1588, a banner in her hand but for some unexplained reason this was replaced by a spear. Originally the group was erected under a ciborium  (vaulted temple) on which was a gothic peak. On the engraving from 1588 the shield is charged with a two-headed eagle but on the original the shield is charged with a single-headed eagle of which a small part of the relief of the right wing has been preserved. The remains of the original paint suggest a black eagle on a yellow field.

The accepted opinion is that the statue represents Otto I, the Great (936-973), because of the special ties this emperor had with the city of Magdeburg. This opinion is, amongst others, based on the inscription which was on the base of the ciborium in the 16th century and read: Diuo Ottoni I Imperat : Inuictiss : Vindici Liebertatis • Patri Patriæ Senatus populusque Magdeburgensis posuit, Anno 973. [7] Comparing the statue with portraits that depict Otto I for certain must lead to the conclusion that it cannot be an image of this emperor. One of his  outstanding features was his rather long straight beard, which was certainly known in the 13th century. One may wonder what the Magdeburg magistrate could have moved to erect a statue of a king almost dead for three hundred years? Comparing the statue with the royal seal of William II of Holland learns us that the rider has to represent him, the date of origin being or example between his reelection in 1252 and his death in 1256. After his marriage in Brunswick with Elizabeth of Brunswick-Luneburg on the 25th of January 1252, he started negotiations with the northern princes and cities to be recognized To achieve this not only duke Albrecht of Saxony and the margraves John and Otto of Brandenburg were bribed but also the cities of Magdeburg and Goslar, which in that way soon belonged to his allies. [8] It is therefore very plausible that the chapel of St. Ulrich and the group of statues in Magdeburg were donated by William II or were erected in his honour.

The rider in particular is to compare with the so-called Bamberg Rider, representing King Henry VII (*1211-†1242) and with some other statues of kings in several German cities. (For example of Henry Raspe and Richard of Cornwall)

In case of the Magdeburg Rider we can conclude that the shield the lady supports was certainly charged from the beginning with a black eagle. These arms are confirmed by the next example. This is a statuette of a standing warrior in armoury with a shield with an eagle at his feet. The statuette has been painted and it can be seen that originally the shield was yellow and the eagle black. [9]  The discovery is that the man again strikingly resembles William II and is, also taking into account the generally accepted date of origin, representing him

 

According to Matthew Paris William II bore the arms of Holland with the red lion. [10]  This is certainly possible for the period that he was a count of Holland only until he made his brother  Florent the guardian of his possessions for that reason also called “The Guardian”(de Voogd). About his arms as a King of Rome Matthew Paris is silent. Melis Stoke also abandons us on this subject when he writes that Willem II, when killed near Hoogwoud was recognized by his shield but fails to tell us what these arms looked like:

 „[de Friezen] Ende saghen sine wapene an. / Doe seiden si: dits een man, / Die wel vorbaer mach wesen. / Doe quam daer een man met desen, / Dienen kende ende seide saen: / Wapene! wat hebdi ghedaen? / Ghi hebt den coninc selve doot.” [11]

([the Frisians) saw his arms/ and then they said, this is a man/ which might be prominent/ then there came a man to them/ who knew and said/ woe what did you do? / You have killed the king himself)

It is true that William II was buried in 1282 by his son Florent V „In enen scrine suverlike / Te Middelborch in de abdie” [12] (In a beautiful shrine/ In Middelburg Abbey) but this shrine was destroyed by fire in 1492 and there are no descriptions useful for our purpose. [13]  The only contemporary proof that William II used an eagle when Roman King was and is the still existing stamp with an eagle. [14]  To which now can be added that his arms, seen the Magdeburg Rider and the statuette from Hamburg, were a black eagle on a golden field. (Or, and eagle Sable)

 

When exactly these arms were adopted by William II remains an unsolved problem. An appropriate moment would have been his coronation on 1 November 1248 in Aachen. He might have adopted a coat of arms with an eagle, be it that it that it should not per se have been a black eagle on gold. A second possibility is at his re-election in 1252 when Conrad IV (*1228-†1254), to which such arms can be ascribed, had left Germany, and the arms had become as it were vacant. [15]  This date is acceptable if on the shield of the lady of the group of Magdeburg there has been a black eagle on gold indeed and not an eagle of different tincture. Besides, it is very  possible that both kings bore the same arms at the same time because such was the case some decennia later when the rivalling German kings Albrecht of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau met on the battlefield at the Battle of Göllheim (1298):

Nu warn auch die wappenklayt / Yedweders kunigs geleich / Albrecht der furst reich / Auf ein reiches tuch gel / Manigen swarczen Adaler / Hies wurchen nach seiner pet / Dieselben er het / Wappenrokh und degkh / Von Nazzaw der kekch / Des wappenklayt man markht / Geweben und gewarcht / In derselben varb und gestalt…[16]

(Now the coats of arms / of both kings were the same / Albrecht the rich prince / on a sumptuous yellow cloth / many black eagles/ were shown to his followers / The same had / as a coat of arms and horsecloth/ the prince of Nassau / his coat of arms one remarks / was woven and embroidered / of the same color and forms.).

It is also possible that William II adopted the arms only after the death of Conrad IV in 1254 and used them for only two years. This would explain why the arms were so rarely attributed to him. These arms are also confirmed by the Magdeburg lady with the arms. This would be the configuration in which William II is still represented as a German King, which can be concluded from the crown he is wearing, but already bears the arms of the candidate of the imperial crown (= Roman King). After all the possiblity exists that William didn’t adopt the arms until his coronation in Rome was certain. The Bigot Roll of arms (1254) is to the credit of this point of view in which there is no King of Rome (any more) but a duke of Swabia (then Conradin Hohenstaufen (*1252-†1268)) and a count of Holland (then William II). They are registered as Le duc de Soave, l’escu noir a trois lions d’or rampans and Le comte de Holandre, l’escu d’or a un lion de geules rampant. [17]. This crown hardly differs from the crowns worn earlier by Roman Kings, characterized by one or two hoops mounted on a diadem. These crowns were certainly much more luxurious than suggested by the crown of the Hamburg statuette but the program is the same. Such closed crowns anticipated the real imperial coronation by the Pope in Rome. The imperial crown distinguished itself by a cross mounted on top of the hoops. William II had come into the possession of the imperial insignia, to which the imperial crown also belonged also and it is certainly possible that he wore the crown of a Roman King. [18] The arms Or, an eagle Sable was the badge of the office of Roman King

 

The arms with the lion of Holland in the meantime, was borne by his brother Florent the Guardian. Like his father Florent IV and his uncle William before him, he was also killed in a tournament. On a seal of him on a document of 24 December 1257, issued a few days before his death in Antwerp, where the tournament was held, is the arms with the lion surrounded by the legend X florentivs de hollandia (the title of ‘count’omitted). The fact that the arms with the lion were borne by Florent is also demonstrated by his monument in the Choir of the church of Middelburg. [19] This monument, of which a fragment was found in 1817, consisted of a lying man in 13th century armoury with a triangular shield charged with a lion at his arm. Certainly this is the monument of Florent the Guardian who was buried „de vii dach van Meye” (7th of May (1258) in Middelburg. [20]

 

Because Florent the Guardian bore the lion of Holland and William II the German eagle it is again confirmed that in those days armoury showed the emblems of the office of the bearer From the descriptions by Melis Stoke and Johannis de Beke we may also conclude that heraldic arms were also borne on campaigns and not just at tournaments or official ceremonies. It also turns out that non-literary sources are of great importance because they can complete the picture on important places. After all it turns out from the determination of the arms of William II, that his glorification has not started in the 14th century but that Johannes de Beke has described the real existing arms where Melis Stoke has failed. With this a gap of ninety years in the tradition of the arms of William II has been filled.

 

Hubert de Vries, 2003

 

Arms and Images

 

Count of Holland

 

Shields of William of Holland in the Historia Anglorum of Mattheus Parisiensis.

 

Mattheus Parisiensis HA14 f. 141v: 1. Or, a lion rampant gules armed azure.: Scutum Willelmi comitis. Primum scutum ejusdem de Holandia aspirantis ad imperium. 2. Azure, on a chief gules a demi-lion rampant issuant or. HA14 f. 141v.: Scutum Willelmi comitis. (Illustration)

3. Mattheus Parisiensis CM14 f. 182v. Death of William of Holland, King of Germany, 1256: Erect shield: Or, a lion rampant queue fourchée gules, surmounted by a sword hilt, above an inverted crown.

 

Maybe the second coat of arms is for his title of Count of Zeeland but this is far from being free of doubt. No other explanation has shown up until now.

 

King of Rome

After the sudden death of Henry Raspe it was not easy to find a new rival king acceptable for the papal faction. Henry II of Brabant was the only of the imperial princes who was eligible. He directed the attention to his nephew count William of Holland. On the 3rd of October 1247 the archbishops of the Lower Rhine, together with some other clerics, elected the 19 year old William in Woerringen near Cologne as their German king. The coronation took place in Aachen on the 1st of November 1248 but not before the citizens of the city had refused him admittance to the city for about a year. By slowly proceeding along the river Rhine, William succeeded in gaining supremacy in Germany but he could only consolidate his position after the death of Frederick II and when king Conrad IV had left for Italy to claim his Sicilian heritage.

In 1251 he started negotiations for his imperial coronation with Pope Innocent at the Council of Lyon and even performed the officum stratoris et strepæ (leading the papal horse by the stirrup). By his marriage with a grand-daughter of Otto IV, he became the symbol of the Guelph party and was re-elected, this time also by some secular princes. In 1254 a league of Rhine cities wanted to pay homage to him. Before this could be effectuated he was beaten to death in a campaign against the Frisians at Hoogwoud in 1256.

 

King of Rome

 

William II of Holland in Armour.

Alias: Standing Warrior Saint (Gorgonius?) Minden, 3rd quarter of the 13th century. Hamburg, Museum f. Kunst u. Gewerbe, Inv.- Nr. 1899, 17a. H. 24.5 cm. Oak. Polychromized and slightly scratched.

 

The statuette has a helmet or a mediaeval princely hat on its head. Red cheeks, blue eyes below brown eyebrows, golden hair with black lines. On the shield is a black eagle on a yellow background. Sheath of the sword in black, his belt white. (From: DZS Kat. n° 465, Abb. 268).

 

As William of Holland is not crowned but has already the coat of arms of a Roman King, this statuette should have been made in the period between his election and his coronation, that is to say between October 1247 and November 1248. The characteristic curl in his hair is clearly visible. (but see also text above)

 

1247 The king on his throne with crown, sceptre and orb. L.: ...MIS HO DI GRA ROM IN REGEO ELECTVS SEM AUGUSTUS. (R.A. Gelderland, Arnhem, Hert. Arch. Münch. Charters 12)

 

Zeremonienschwert

 

 

 

Eagles of the Middle of the 13th century

Left: Seal of Wimpfen a/Neckar, 1250 ca. Centre: Plaque on the ceremonial sword; Right: Seal of Rottweil, somewhat before 1251. (Both seals from DZS n°s 148, 149)

 

This type of eagle, head pointing upwards, big wrists and sparsely feathered wings, can be traced throughout the 13th century

The ceremonial sword and its sheath probably belonged to the Sicilian treasury. They were quite certainly used at the imperial coronation of Frederick II in Rome in November 1220. The eagle on the plaque must have been added later:

1 because if the sheath came from the Sicilian Treasury we would expect a black eagle on a silver background (which would have been very undiplomatic),

2 because if the sword was used for an imperial coronation we would expect the imperial symbol of the two-headed black eagle on a golden background.

The sword, consequently, has belonged to a Roman King of the 13th century of which the symbol was a black eagle on gold. As it is not likely that the sword was used at  the coronation of the then eleven year old Henry VII in 1222, and as neither Henry Raspe nor Conrad IV were actually crowned King of the Romans, the black eagle on the golden plaque must have been added by William II of Holland for his coronation on the 1st of November 1248.

 

 

Seal: The king on his throne with crown, sceptre and orb. L.: X * : willelmvs dei . gracia : romanorvm : rex : semper avgustvs. D.: 1248 & 18.06.1252. (AGN 2, p. 294; DZS, n  57; CSN 521.)

 

The curl in his hair accentuated.

 

Seal: The king on his throne with crown, sceptre and orb.  L.: X : willelmvs: dei : gracia : romanorum : rex : semper : augustus. (CSN 522)

 

1248 Counterseal of William II of Holland: Eagle (CSN 523).

 

Foto H.d.V.

Portrait of William II of Holland

 

This statue on a ‘tomb’ is in the chapel of St. Ulrich in the Palace of Goslar. It dates from the 13th century and is generally identified as being the image of the German King Henry III (1039-’56) who had strong relations with the city.

The monument is quite enigmatic. There is a striking  resemblance of the “deceased” with the man on the seal of King William II. The curl in his hair is pronounced like on that seal and this dates the statue on about 1250. Standing upright, it may have been the statue of the donor of the chapel, a model of which he holds in his left hand. But in that case the cushion under his head and the dog at his feet would be unexplainable.

Another possibility would be that the monument is in fact of Henry III, count Palatine of Saxony  (1247-†1288) but in that case the crown and sceptre would be unexplainable.

 

 

Portrait of William II of Holland, 1250 ca.

 

Detail of the Tomb of Archbishop Siegfried III von Eppstein

with the counter-kings Henry Raspe of Thuringia  and William II of Holland, ca. 1250 (Plaster cast).

 

Original: H.: 214 cm, B. 102 cm. Limestone. The monument was restored in 1834 and was repainted in the supposed original colours by the masterpainter Gräf. Parts of the hand of the Archbishop, the upper part of the crozier and the crowns of the two kings were renewed.

 

The tombstobe of  Archbishop Siegfried III von Eppstein, deceased in Bingen in 1249 and buried in the chorus ferreus of the cathedral of Mayence, was set in the nave near the first pillar from the south in 1865.  (From: DZS. Kat. 450, Abb. 251, with explanation)

 

The curl in his hair is less pronounced, like in his portrait in Magdeburg below. Waved hair instead of the pronounced curl at the end seems to have been a new fashion because the hair of king Henry Raspe, depicted on the right side of the archbishop, is also wavy and not curly.

 

On the left a plaster cast of the monument in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg. The original is in the Dommuseum of Mayence. For some reason the plaster cast resembles the portrait on the seal and the portrait in Magdeburg more than the original which has a more round head.

 

Magdeburger Reiter

 

 

The Rider of Magdeburg

 

The Rider of Magdeburg dates from the middle of the 13th century. The original is in the History of Art Museum in Magdeburg. A gilded copy, made in 1961, is on the Alter Markt in the center of the city.

 

Photo H.d.V 2012

The lady with the shield

 

The Rider of Magdeburg is part of a group  consisting of the rider and two ladies of which one holds a shield. The other lady held a banner, to be seen on a copperplate of 1588. The banner has disappeared since then and, for unknown reasons, was replaced by a spear in the copy. The group was initially arranged under a ciborium, a cupola crowned with a gothic spire. On the copperplate of 1588 there is a two-headed eagle on the shield but we can now see a black eagle on the original, probably on a yellow background. 

The current opinion is that the rider has to be Otto the Great (936-973) because this king maintained special relations with the city. This opinion is also based on the 16th century inscription written on the pedestal of the ciborium. It read: Diuo Ottoni Imperat : Inuictiss : Vindici Liebertatis • Patri Patriæ Senatus populusque Magdeburgensis posuit, Anno 973. Comparing the statue with the effigy of William II on his seal and taking into account the undisputed period in which the statue was made, we may conclude that the rider must be William II of Holland and not Otto III. As such we may date the statue between 1252 and 1256, the most succesful period of his life.

 

The statue is equivalent to the Rider of Pisa and the Rider of Bamberg that can be identified as the statues of Frederick II and his son Henry VII.

 

Lit.: Schubert, Ernst: Der Magdeburger Reiter. In: Magdeburger Museumshefte 3, Magdeburg 1994. Otto der Grosse, Magdeburg und Europa. Bd I.  Magdeburg, 2001. pp. 430-435,  442. Illustration

 

About his Sepulchre in Middelburg Abbey

 

After king William was killed by the Frisans in 1256, his son Florent V built a sepulchre for him in Middelburg Abbey.

 

Boxhorn  writes about this event (Dl. II p. 85):

 

In’t jaer mcclvi / op ter Octave van Sinte Agnieten/ toog dese Edele Koninck Willem met een groot heyr van volck tot Hoogwoude /daer hij streed teghen de West Vriesen eenen grooten strydt/ op den ijse; daer dese Edele Roomsch Keyser ter aerde geslaghen wordt/ soo dat hy vermoorde in synen helm, Ende die Hollanders waren deer alsoo geslaeghen/ soodat van Alckmaer ende van Delft niet meer dan vijf levende mannen ‘t huys en quamen/ nochtans brochten sy haer Banieren met hen ’t huys. Dese Edele Koningh Willem worde al heymelijck begraven in eens Vriesen huys/ daer hij niet langhe en bleef ligghen/ als men hier nae in Graeve Floris tijd/ Koninck Willems soone/ breeder hooren sal. 

 

When count Florent V undertook a campaign against the Frisians in 1283, he discovered the mortal remains of his father and took them with him. Boxhorn writes (Dl. II p. 92):

 

Doen tooch Graeve Floris tot Hoechthoudtwouden/ daer de Vriesen quamen met veel volcx/ ende streden tegen Graven Floris/ daer hem die Heeren van Zeelandt al te vroomelijcken hadden/ soo dat sy den strijd wonnen/ ende versloegen het dan xxxviiiM Vriesen. Aldaer een oudt Vriese gevanghen wordt/ die sijn lijf ghegheven was/ omdat hy Koninckx Willems graf wijzen soude/ ’t welck ghewesen hebbende/ dede Grave Floris ’t graf opdoen/ ende sijn vader opgraeven/ ende ’t gebeente schoon wasschen/ ende in een schoon Kiste leggen/ die welcke soo met grooter eere ende reverentie te Middelburch in Zeelandt ghebracht werdt/ ende alsoo in de Abdye begraven/ met grooten solemniteyten/ als dat een Keyser ende Koninck toebehoordt/ ende hadde de Landen gheregeert xxix jaer/ ende ’t Roomsch Rijck viii jaer. Voor welcken Koninck Willem is begonnen te maecken in ’t jaer mcccccxlvi een seer schoone ende ryckelycke tombe ende sepulture in de Abdie tot Middelburch in Zeelandt by Heer Floris van Schoonhoven/ Abt ende Prelaat aldaar.

 

Boxhorn continues (Dl. I, p. 152):

 

Dese, als oock voor hem Vrouw Ada, Graef Floris, de derden, wijf, legghen hier  (= in de Abdij van Middelburg) begraven.

Ende heeft Heer Floris van Schoonhoven, Abt ende Prelaat aldaer, in de jare 1546, begonnen op te richten een seer kosteleycke tombe, soo tot eeuwiger gedachtenisse van die so hooch verheven Koninck Willem, als om dat hij in het bijzondere seer wel van den luyden van Zeelandt gemeriteert hadde. Doch dit heerlijcke werck, neffens vele andere kostelyckheden van altaren, ende konstige beelden, die eertijds met verwonderinghe hier pleghen ghesien te worden, zijn door brandt, en voornemelyck door de onbeschofte handt van de beeldtstormers, in het begin van de Nederlandtsche beroerte, vernielt gheworden. [21]

 

Isaac Tirion later writes:

 

„Rijkelijk werdt deeze Abtdy begiftigd by Koning Willem, Graaf van Holland en Zeeland, een zeer Godsdienstig Vorst die dezelve ook in den jaare 1256, heerlyk heeft opgehaald, en Geleerde Mannen ter Bestieringe der Kerke bezorgd. Hy zelf, gelyk ook zyn Broeder Floris, Voogd van Holland, en de nog vroeger overleedene Graavin Ada, Gemaalin van Graave Floris den derden, liggen in de Abtdykerke, die ter eere van de H. Maagd en St. Nikolaas ingewyd is, begraaven, en wel, zoo sommigen meenen, ter plaatse, daar thans de Konsistorie der Koorkerk is, zynde lang naderhand door Floris van Schoonhoven, Abt van Middelburg, op bevel van Koninginne Maria, Landvoogdesse der Nederlanden, in den jaare 1542, of volgens anderen in den jaare 1546, eene heerlyke Graftombe ter gedagtenisse van Koning Willem opgerigt, dog die door den Brand of Beelstormery vernield is.” [22]

 

Abbreviations:

 

AGN: Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 15 Dln, 1982.

CSN: Corpus Sigillorum Neerlandicorum. De Nederlandse Zegels tot 1300. Afgebeeld en beschreven. In opdracht en onder toezicht van de Neder­landsche Koninklijke Academie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Martinus Nijhoff. 's Gravenhage 1937-1940. 

DZS: Die Zeit der Staufer. Katalog der Ausstellung. Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart, 1977

 

 

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© Hubert de Vries Updated: 2006.09.28; 2012-07-21; 2015-01-27

 

 



[1]  Bruch H.: Chronographia Johannis de Beke.’s-Gravenhage, 1973 . Caput 72i vs. 20: Hii regis arma cognoscentes ex auro fulvo splendida, in quibus atri coloris choruscabat aquila.

[2] Dhanens, E.: Het graf van Rooms-Koning Willem II en de rol van Jan Gossaert in de wederuitrusting van de koorkerk  te Middelburg in Zeeland. In: Academiae Analecta. Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België. Klasse der Schone Kunsten. jrg. 46, 1985, nr. 1. Pp. 61-142 + 36 afb.

3 Also in the The Hague manuscript of the  Heraut Beyeren (edited by Jeanne Verbij-Schillings. Hilversum. Verloren, 1999) fol. 22r (p. 251).

[4]  Corpus Sigillorum Neerlandicorum, ’s Gravenhage 1937-’40. (= CSN)  n° 520.

[5] CSN 521, 522. Posse, Kaisersiegel I. 35,4, Kruisheer, J.G.: De oorkonden  en de kanselarij van de graven van Holland tot 1299. In: Hollandse Studiën  Dl. 2.2., 1971, 472, Nr. 40.

[6] Dom van Mainz, gipsafgietsel in het Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Neurenberg.  Die Zeit der Staufer,1977. Kat. n° 450, afb. 251.

[7] Schubert, Ernst: Der Magdeburger Reiter. In: Magdeburger Museumshefte 3, Magdeburg 1994. Otto der Grosse, Magdeburg und Europa. Bd I.  Magdeburg, 2001. pp. 430-435,  442.  The translation reads: “The divine unrivalled emperoro Otto I. Father of the fatherland who has given liberty. Erected by the senate and the people of Magdeburg in 983”. The reason why the inscription, very clearly a mystification, has been applied in the 16th century is unknown but it has doubtlessly been accepted without question.

[8] Hintze, O. Das Königtum Wilhelms von Holland. Leipzig, 1885. Pp. 47 e.v.

[9] Stehender Ritterheiliger (Gorgonius?). Minden, drittes Viertel des 13. Jh.. Hamburg, Museum f. Kunst u. Gewerbe, Inv.- Nr. 1899, 17a. H. 24,5 cm. Eichenholz. Risse und kleine Bestoßungen. Reste einer Fassung auf dick aufgetragenem Kreidegrund. (Die Zeit der Staufer, 1977 Kat. 465, Abb. 268).

[10] The arms of William of Holland are in the Historia Anglorum of Matheus Parisiensis (HA14 f. 141v°): 1. Or, a lion rampant gules armed azure. L.: Scutum Willelmi comitis. Primum scutum ejusdem de Holandia aspirantis ad imperium. 2. Azure, on a chief gules a demi-lion rampant issuant or. L.: Scutum Willelmi comitis.  Zie ook: Lewis, Suzanne: The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora. Univ. of California Press. Berkely/Los Angeles, 1987.  Zie ook Vries, Hubert de: Wapens van d Nederlanden, Amsterdam 1995 pp. 129 e.v.

[11] Melis Stoke, Derde Boek vs. 1567-1573.

[12] Melis Stoke, Vierde Boek vs. 472, 473.

[13] Dhanens op.cit. 1985,  pp. 78 e.v.: III. The shrine in the Roman church.

[14] CSN n° 523.

[15] According to Conrad von Mure his Clipearius Teutonicorum (1242-‘49) he bore: Rex Romanorum, si quid veri mea prefert / Vox, aquilæ nigræ formam croceo clipeo fert. (The Roman King if it is true what people told me, the figure of a black eagle on a yellow shield). With this  Rex Romanorum Henry VI can be meant because the other arms he describes are from persons from Swabia, the centre of the power of the Hohenstaufen  (Liebenau, Th. von: Das älteste Wappengedicht Deutschlands. In: Vierteljahrsschrift für Wappen- Siegel- und Familienkunde. Herold. VIII Jahrg. 1880, pp. 20 - 34.)

[16] A poem of  Ottokar Horneck (†1320) cited in Seyler, Gustav: Geschichte der Heraldik 1890/1970) p. 285.

[17] Brault, Gerard J. Eight Thirteenth-Century Rolls of Arms in French and Anglo-Norman Blazon. London, 1973. P. 16, n°s 11 & 21. This is also according to the quote of  Matheus Parisiensis

[18] Dhanens, op.cit. 1985  p. 67. Note 7: Letter to the abbot of Egmond, 1254/55: „Bij deeze blydschap komt noch dat Wy het slot Driesvelt en  de tekenen der Keizerlyke Waardigheit, de Keyzerlyke Kroonen, als ook de Doorne-kroon en speer, met onwaardeerlyke kostelykheden vercierd, in eigendom vreedzamelyk bezitten.” There also bibliography. Driesvelt = Trifels  (Landkreis Südliche Weinstraße, Rheinland Pfalz). The insigna were kept there.

[19] Dhanens, op. cit. 1985, p. 100-102

[20] Chroniick van Zeelandt Eertijds beschreven door d’Heer Johan Reygersbergen, nu verbetert, ende vermeerdert door Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn. Dl. I-II. Middelburch, 1644. Dl. I, p. 152; Dl. II p. 92.

[21] Chroniick van Zeelandt Eertijds beschreven door d’Heer Johan Reygersbergen, nu verbetert, ende vermeerdert door Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn. Dl. I-II. Middelburch, 1644.

[22] Hedendaagse Historie of tegenwoordige staat van alle Volkeren; xixde  deel. Vervolgende de Beschryving der Vereenigd Nederlanden, en wel in’t byzonder handelende van Zeeland. Te Amsterdam by Isaak Tirion, 1751. Pp. 166-167. (Repr. Zaltbommel, 1966).